Patreon processes payments on the 1st of every month. To payout your balance, head to your payout preferences page.
Here's a visual walkthrough for paying out your balance:
From the menu on the left hand side, select income. From the expanded menu, select pay out balance.
If you'd like to have your sent to the payment method you supplied, check the "enable automatic monthly transfers" box. Enabling this will send the money in your account balance to your bank account on the 5th of the month.