While one-time payments are a great feature idea, it's important we stay true to what Patreon is all about: Building a membership platform for creators.
At the moment, Patreon only offer recurring memberships, and one time donations are not available. All patreon memberships are currently on recurring monthly, or annual (if your creator has this available) billing cadence. You can learn more about how creators can bill their patrons,
For now, the best way for a patron to subscribe to a creator with a one-time payment is to become a patron then simply cancel their membership after they have been successfully billed. You'll know when you have been billed because you'll receive an email confirmation stating your payment has successfully processed.
Additionally, you can check your billing history to review when you were charged and if it has successfully processed.